Two key points in the renovation of old houses wit

2022-07-22
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The owners of old houses often encounter more problems than new houses. In addition, if the building construction time is very long, some unreasonable building codes may affect the overall planning of the decoration layout, which requires the owners and designers to use their brains

I. working conditions of dry hanging stones on the wall

1. The structure has been inspected and accepted, the concealed inspection and pre inspection procedures have been handled, and the installation and construction of water and electricity, ventilation and equipment have been completed

2. The slate shall be prepared according to the specification, variety, quality standard, physical and mechanical properties and quantity of the design drawings, and the surface treatment shall be carried out

3. The external doors and windows have been installed and meet the specified quality standards after inspection

4. Stainless steel anchors, embedded adhesives, sealants, glue guns, foam strips and hand-held electric tools have been prepared

5. Technical disclosure to construction operators should emphasize technical measures, quality standards and finished product protection

6. Make samples first, and organize personnel to carry out large-scale construction after self inspection by the quality inspection department, reporting to the owner and passing the design appraisal

II. Construction process of dry hanging stones on the wall

1. Acceptance of stones: the acceptance of stones should be managed by a specially assigned person. It is necessary to carefully check whether the specifications and models of stones are correct according to the design requirements, and whether they are consistent with the material list. If the colors are obviously inconsistent, they should be stacked separately, so that they can be returned to the manufacturer

2. Scaffold erection: steel pipe fasteners are used to erect double row scaffolds. The clear distance between the upright and the wall surface is required to be not less than 500mm, and the clear distance between the short cross bar and the wall surface is not less than 300mm. The connection and anchorage between the frame body and the main structure are firm. Springboards are fully paved on the top and bottom of the frame, and safety nets are set outside

3. Measurement and setting out: first, use a special large plumb bob or theodolite to find out the verticality from top to bottom of the wall surface, column surface, door and window cover to which the stone is to be hung. At the same time, the stone thickness and the distance between the stone endothelium and the structural surface should be considered, which is generally 60 ~ 80mm. Measure the horizontal line with a level according to the height of the stone and mark it on the wall. Generally, the slab joint is 6 ~ 10mm. The snapping line shall be divided from the center of the exterior wall veneer to both sides and up and down, and the error shall be even

4. Drilling and slotting: measure the exact position before installing the stone slab, and then drill and slotting. For reinforced concrete or brick walls, first slot and drill holes at 80 ~ 100mm from the center of the hole at both ends of the stone slab, with a hole depth of 20 ~ 25mm, and then drill holes with a diameter of 8 ~ 10mm at the position where the wall is slotted and drilled relative to the stone slab. Insert one end of the stainless steel expansion bolt into the hole for fixation, and hang the anchor at the other end. For reinforced concrete columns and beams, due to the high reinforcement ratio of components and large reinforcement area, it is difficult to drill holes and slots in some parts. When measuring and snapping lines, it is necessary to avoid the reinforcement position on the column or wall first, and accurately mark the drilling position. After drilling and fixing the expansion bolt anchor, drill holes and slots in the corresponding position of the slate

5. Bottom slab installation: when installing the bottom slab, it should be installed according to the position of the stainless steel anchor on the fixed wall. The specific operation is to install the slab hole slot and the anchor fixing pin in the right position, use the rectangular bolt hole of the anchor to adjust the flatness of the slab, and square the internal and external corners with a square ruler, pull the through line to find the upper mouth of the slab flat, and then fix the slab firmly with the anchor, The anchor will be blocked and fixed with embedded glue

6. Installation of ascending stone slabs: first inject embedded glue into the bolt hole of the next row of stone slabs, wipe off the residual glue, and then put the ascending stone slabs in place according to the operation method of installing the bottom stone slabs. Check the installation quality and fix it after it meets the design and specification requirements. The same method can be used to fix both sides of the stone slab for the parts on the cornice and other stone slabs that are not easy to fix

7. Sealing and caulking: after the stone slab is hung and pasted, the surface is cleaned and the dust in the gap is removed. First, the inner side of the slab is filled with foam plastic strips with a diameter of 8 ~ 10mm, leaving a 5 ~ 6mm deep seam. On the stone slab on both sides of the seam, stick a 10 ~ 15mm wide plastic tape against the seam to prevent the slab surface from being polluted when caulking, and then fill the sealant with a glue gun. If the sealant pollutes the slab surface, it must be wiped immediately. Finally, remove the adhesive tape, clean the surface of the stone slab, wax and polish, and remove the scaffold after reaching the quality standard

III. construction method of dry hanging stones on the wall

1. Stone preparation: use colorimetry to select and classify the colors of stones. The colors of stones installed on the same side should be consistent, and the stones should be numbered according to the design drawings and block order

2. Base course preparation: clean the structural surface of the pre made decorative stone, set the structural square at the same time, find the rules, and snap the vertical and horizontal lines. According to the design drawings and actual needs, the position line and block line of stone installation shall be marked out

3. Hanging line: according to the requirements of the design drawings, the vertical control line on both sides of the big corner should be hit with a theodolite in advance before the installation of the stone, and it is best to snap it 20cm away from the big corner, so as to check the accurate line of the vertical hanging line at any time, ensure the smooth installation, and mark the upper and lower parts of the control line

4. Support the bottom decorative panel bracket, press the pre arranged support on the flat line and support it on the bottom stone slab to be installed. The supports should be firmly supported, well connected with each other, or connected with the shelf. After the support is installed, a full-length 50mm thick board should be nailed along the support direction, and the upper opening of the board should be on the same horizontal plane to ensure that the upper and lower parts of the stone are on the same horizontal plane

5. Upper connecting iron piece: fix angle steel and flat steel plate with stainless steel bolts specified in the design. Adjust the position of the flat steel plate so that the small hole of the flat steel plate is just opposite to the insertion hole of the stone plate. Fix the flat steel plate and tighten it with a wrench

6. Bottom slab installation: install the connecting iron pieces on the side, and then a piece on the corner of the bottom slab can be put in place

7. Adjustment and fixation: after the panel is temporarily fixed, adjust the levelness. If the upper opening of the panel is uneven, put a corresponding double stranded copper wire pad on the connecting flat steel plate at the lower opening of one end of the bottom of the panel. Adjust the verticality, and adjust the gap between the stainless steel connector at the upper opening of the panel and the wall until the panel is vertical

8. Installation of top panel: in addition to understanding the general installation requirements of stone slab, the last layer of top panel shall be installed and adjusted. A 20mm thick wooden strip with a full length shall be hung in the gap between the structure and the stone slab. The upper surface of the wooden strip is 250mm below the upper opening of the stone slab, and the lifting point can be set on the connecting iron pieces. The wooden strip can be hung with colored aluminum wire. After the wooden strip is hoisted, fill the gap between the stone slab and the wall tightly to prevent grout leakage during grouting

9. Clean the surface of marble and granite: remove the antifouling strips on the surface of marble and granite, and wipe the slate with cotton yarn

IV. finished product protection of dry hanging stone on the wall

1. Arrange the construction sequence scientifically, and do a good job in advance for the construction of water, electricity, heating, ventilation, equipment installation, etc., so as to prevent damage and pollution to the external stone veneer

2. The sealant, dust, adhesive, oil stain, fingerprints, water and other sundries left on the door and window frames, glass and metal decorative panels should be cleaned in time and carefully; Protective film should be pasted to prevent pollution and corrosion

3. It is strictly forbidden to collide with the dry hanging slate finish when removing the shelf or loading

4. After finishing, the edges and corners of the easily damaged parts should be protected with wooden boards. When other types of work are operated, it is strictly forbidden to scratch the paint against the stone slab

5. When the coating agent is not dry outside, it is strictly forbidden to dump garbage, muck or turn over the scaffold board

6. The finished external stone veneer should be watched by a specially assigned person to prevent the behavior of scribbling on the veneer board and endangering the finished product

7. Construction precautions

8. Different colors: in order to prevent inconsistent colors of exterior facing stones, stone plates should be carefully selected and trial assembled in advance during construction

9. The line angle is not straight, and the joint grid is uneven: in order to prevent the line angle is not smooth and straight, and the joint grid is uneven and not straight, the actual size of the structure construction should be carefully checked according to the size of the design drawing before construction. The line snapping by sections and blocks should be accurate and meticulous, and the horizontal line and hanging straight line should be often pulled for inspection and correction

v. quality standard of wall dry hanging stone

(I) main control project

1. The variety, specification, performance and grade of materials used in stone wall engineering should meet the design requirements and the provisions of the current national product standards and engineering technical specifications

2. The shape, facade division, color, gloss, pattern and pattern of the stone wall should meet the requirements

3. The number, depth, position and size of stone holes and grooves should meet the design requirements. The connection node of the wall corner shall comply with the design requirements and the provisions of the technical standards

(II) general items

1. The stone wall surface should be flat and clean, without pollution, defects and cracks. The color and pattern should be consistent without obvious color difference and obvious repair mark

2. The stone joints should be horizontal and vertical, with uniform width; The pressing direction of internal and external corner slabs should be correct, and the joint of slab edges should be straight; The thickness of concave convex line out of the wall should be consistent, and the upper and lower openings should be straight; The opening and groove edge on the stone panel should be cut and matched, and the edge should be neat

3. The allowable deviation of the installation of the stone decorative panel shall comply with the provisions of table 8.2.9 of the code for acceptance of quality of building decoration and fitment engineering:

verticality of the facade: 2mm

surface flatness: 2mm

squareness of the internal and external corners: 2mm

straightness of the joint: 2mm

straightness of the upper opening of the skirt and plinth: 2mm

height difference of the joint: 0.5mm

joint width: 1mm

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